Electronics technology

Technology is a discipline that aims to study practical ways of obtaining material goods. The technologies are very different and varied, they are specific areas: mechanical, electrical, electronic, metallurgy, etc. Electronic technology is a relatively new discipline that deal with the processes of making components and circuits, as well as ways to achieve their assembly electronics.

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Microelectronics technology addresses the modalities of discreet electronic devices and integrated circuits. Reduce the overall dimensions and cost price and increase the reliability of electronic equipment were otained with the development of technologies for integrated circuits and the modular assembly. Microelectronics technology is based on a number of basic process steps for manufacturing semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Integrated circuits are semiconductor structures formed inside or on the surface of a portion of monocrystalline semiconductor material.

 

Of these, the monolithic circuit elements are formed in a single semiconductor structure and the fragmentation is carried out in several monolithic structures interwined with each other. All these structures are based on junction properties or the influence of the electric field on the movement of charge carries. For the manufacture of microelectronic  integrated circuit technology appeals to a large number of elementary technological steps.
In recent technologies can intervene to 15 during manufacture photolithography a circuit. After completing the manufacturing cycle wafers are tested and then cut. Cutting out following crystallographic axes direction affords chips. The chips are then encapsulated, marked and tested. In some cases, multiple chips are mounted in the same capsule and interconnected through internal routes. This will limit the number of external interconnections. These are called hybrid circuits and can have several hundred pins for connection to the outside. Recent technological processes easy reach between 400 and 500 elementary stages. This explains why during the manufacturing of an integrated circuit current is 2 – 3 months depending on the complexity. The purpose of technology is to produce integrated circuits with desired performance wih maximum  reliability and minimum costs. For this integration density and yield of manufacturing should be the maximum.

Achievement through technology means the making of printed circuit boards with industrial or artisanal means. PCB is a printed conductive system that provides all electrical connection between components, shielding and grounding. Printed conductors represent a portion of the metallic layer on an isolated equivalent of an ordinary electrical connections assembly.

 

The design process consists of placing the printed wiring diagram and design principles. The geometric dimensions and weight of electronic components, electrical and other hazard located on printed wiring board, and determine guage constructive structure assembly of subassemblies. How in system interconnect subassembly. How in system interconnect subassembly design influence printed wiring boards.

 


There are several possibilities of interconnection namely, by fixing the connection, plates, connecting directly and indirect connection. If the board is assembled vertically dissipative elements are placed at the top with higher symmetry axex arranged vertically to optimize the thermal convection. If the board is assembled horizontally dissipative elements are placed on insulating spacers and thermosetting matterials, having the opposite possition on the dissipation of heat.

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